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ESOL Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.


Modelling/Modelling book/Annotating a text: The teacher provides a model of good writing and explicitly highlights the linguistic and language features and learning outcomes for the students. The exemplified model text is kept for further reference by students’ e.g. in a large book, or on a chart. Students often glue a copy into their own exercise book which they may also exemplify, etc. modelling can be a form of shared or guided writing. Modelling makes learning visible.

Watch this video to see a teacher using modelling in her year 5–6 social studies class


Teaching and learning sequence examples:

Primary level:

Supporting English Language learning in primary Schools (SELLIPS) also provides examples of modelling

Secondary level:

Primary and secondary:

  • The English language Intensive programme, years 1–6 and 7–13 has examples of model texts with the language and text features of each highlighted. Suggested teaching components and strategies are provided.

Published on: 19 Jan 2018