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ESOL Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.

Stage 1

There are some very simple short texts and some longer more complex texts in all strands of Stage 1. This is to allow for joint deconstruction and reconstruction of texts, alongside independent construction. The more complex texts, for example the text on Jean Batten or the text on turtles, may seem very difficult in comparison with the other Stage 1 texts. However, students can be shown how to write only one sentence under each of the text stages, but have seen a model of an expanded text. Much research on the comprehension and text production of English language learners suggests that they learn better when using more difficult texts with lots of support rather than highly simplified texts.

Oral Interaction

These texts are examples of the types of oral texts that learners are required to comprehend and produce in a variety of contexts, including community contexts. At Foundation and Stage 1, they include examples of interactions necessary for communicating at school.

Link to Google Slides


Reading, Understanding and Responding

These outcomes apply to both silent reading and reading aloud, as the Teaching Components indicate. It should be remembered that silent reading is only possible when the text is at the independent reading level of the learner or when it is at instructional level and carefully supported with a variety of guided reading scaffolds, such as an advance organiser, or a set of question prompts. At Foundation and Stage 1, the Teaching Components strongly suggest a phonemic awareness programme, so that sound letter correspondences (including clusters and blends) are firmly established for both individual letters and vowel and consonant blends.

Link to Google Slides



The Stages 1-2 then model text structures and describe language features of typical classroom tasks. There are likely to be many learners who will enter school in the primary years already competent in these skills. Diagnostic and placement assessments will determine this. The content of texts used in Stages 1-2 as writing models is, like that of the texts for Oral Interaction and Reading, drawn from a number of curriculum contexts.

Link to Google Slides


Updated on: 13 Nov 2020

Google Slides

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Stage 1 Learners

Foundation and Stage 1 learners are beginner learners of English. They may be literate in their first language/s or may have had little or no previous formal education and may be unable to read or write in their first language/s. They will vary widely in their exposure to English. Some may speak a little English, but this is likely to be limited to basic interpersonal communicative skills in a limited range of contexts. They will need a strong foundation in the fundamental building blocks of written and spoken English.