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ESOL Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.


The ELIP Years 7-13 Resource provides clear guidelines for teachers about what should be included in an ESOL programme from beginner to advanced stages, which supports learning in a range of curriculum contexts. It recognises that language learning is a recursive process, which means that in order to become proficient users of a new language, learners need repeated opportunities to be exposed to language features and to practise identifying and using them in a variety of increasingly complex texts. At the same time it allows room for teacher preferences and encourages flexibility in programme planning. Effective use of the ELIP Resource will assist teachers to develop coherent programmes to enhance the acquisition of English for all students facing the challenges of learning in a new language. It is also linked directly to the  English Language Learning Progressions (ELLP) and to the DVDs - Making Language and Learning Work.

These sections explain the resource in more detail.

Rationale and description

ELIP Resource: Rationale

The English Language Intensive Programme (ELIP) Years 7-13 Resource is designed to support ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) programmes for students in Years 7-13. It is not intended to be a whole programme in itself, but provides guidelines for teachers of ESOL programmes by selecting some language outcomes and language learning focus points at three phases of English language learning.

  • Foundation and Stage 1 learners are beginner learners of English. They may be literate in their first language/s or may have had little or no previous formal education and may be unable to read or write in their first language/s. They will vary widely in their exposure to English. Some may speak a little English, but this is likely to be limited to basic interpersonal communicative skills in a limited range of contexts. They will need a strong foundation in the fundamental building blocks of written and spoken English.
  • Stage 2 learners in this age group (Years 7-13) are those who have established a strong foundation for their English language. They will have acquired approximately a 1000-2000 word working vocabulary. They will be gradually consolidating their English skills. At intermediate and junior secondary levels these learners are below their age level cohort but will be moving closer towards using and producing cohort level texts. They will still need considerable intensive support.
  • Stage 3 learners in Years 7-13 have a good working vocabulary of at least 3000-4000 words but will need continued intensive teaching with explicit focus on grammar at word, phrase and whole text level to enable them to deconstruct and construct texts independently. Learners entering Stage 3 will need carefully scaffolded teaching to work with the texts. The Stage 3 materials in the ELIP Resource are aimed at senior secondary school English language learners who are close to cohort. It is unlikely that learners in Years 7-8 would  be using Stage 3 texts, although some texts would be able to be used as additional extension materials with junior secondary English language learners. The Stage 3 texts can be also used as teaching materials for ESOL unit standards.

The Example Texts give teachers some guidance on the complexity of the text appropriate at each level and will enable teachers to select texts for other curriculum areas at a similar level. The ELIP Resource is based on the principles of a spiral curriculum, as the language outcomes are similar at each Stage, but each successive Stage has an increased academic demand.

 ELIP Resource: Description

The ELIP Resource includes:

• an overview of the Language Outcomes focussed on in each Stage

• an Orientation to Learning section at each Stage

• Example Texts related to a range of curriculum areas for Oral interaction, Reading, understanding and responding and Writing, at four levels of English, with annotations on text structure, language features and grammar scope to support each Language Outcome

• suggested Teaching Components and Sample Strategies, suggested Themes, Topics and Experiences

• suggested Assessment tasks

None of the sections on Teaching Components, Sample Strategies, Grammar Scope, Suggested Topics/contexts or Assessments is intended to be comprehensive. Teachers should be encouraged to select from and add to all of these sections as far as their own professional knowledge and teaching repertoire allows. However, this Resource should support those teachers who are less confident in their knowledge about language, or uncertain about the level of text to choose and what teaching and learning strategies could be used to meet the Language Outcomes effectively.

The Resource does not represent the full range of types of texts that learners will encounter. Many classroom texts contain mixed text types. i.e. a recount may contain a passage of description, or a procedure may include a section of explanation. The Example Texts are intended to be seen as typical in their text structures and language features. Likewise, the Grammar Scope will need to be expanded as teachers focus on particular points of importance or interest which may arise. Many of the grammar points require extensive scaffolded explanation suited to the context. For example, focusing on nouns will be different at each Stage as there are many different aspects of nouns, not all of which are not referred to in the Grammar Scope or Language Features: not all aspects of verb phrases, such as all tenses, are explicitly referred to. Teachers will need to introduce these individual additional grammar points as appropriate, taking into account the readiness of the learners in relation to the broad pathway of additional language acquisition.

Using the Resource - links with mainstream teachers

Using the Resource: teaching and learning components

It is extremely important to understand that the ELIP Resource is not a collection of texts to be taught in isolation. The texts should be used as part of well-scaffolded units of work. For example, the Stage 2 text about Antarctica for the Language Outcome - Reading, understanding and responding to an information report - should be taught as part of a unit on Antarctica. In several of the Example Text pages, there are references to websites which contain many useful supplementary resources at a range of reading levels. Some of these are additional units of work on related topics. Others are video clips which illustrate concepts or phenomena described in the text, such as wind turbine operation, or hurricane movement, or the Solar System. There are also a number of websites which provide illustrations and information to support the literature referred to in the Example Texts, such as ‘Around the World in Eighty Days’, ‘Whale Rider’ and ‘The Pearl’. ESOL Online has materials related to a number of the texts in all strands of the ELIP Resource.

 Also, these units should integrate the three strands of Oral interaction, Reading, understanding and responding, and Writing. Many of the texts in these three strands can complement each other and be used interchangeably, although the emphasis of the Teaching Components will alter according to the strand. The Orientation to Learning strand assists the development of independent learning.

 Orientation to Learning

These outcomes describe the types of behaviours which are required from learners in Years 7-13. Not all learners will require to be taught all the learning behaviours, but those with no prior formal schooling will need to have the Foundation and Stage 1 behaviours explicitly and firmly established in order for them to be able to learn in the classroom. The Stage 2 and 3 Orientation  to Learning outcomes lead students towards being independent learners. It is important to supplement these outcomes with a pro-social skills training programme for students who are not used to formal schooling and social interactions. Examples of pro-social skills training  modules are Anger management or Finding a friend: pro-social skills micro-modules might include “how to interrupt politely”, “how to ask for the teacher’s help”, “how to disagree politely”, “how to give praise to a peer”. Many students need explicit help with these interactions.

 Oral Interaction

These texts are examples of the types of oral texts that learners are required to comprehend and produce in a variety of contexts, including community contexts. At Foundation and Stage 1, they include example of interactions  necessary for communicating at school. The written  ELIP Resource Oral Interaction sections were supplemented by an oral resource which was sent to schools from 2004 onwards. The Oral interaction texts in the folder can also be used as role plays by students.

At Stage 3, the Teaching Components, in addition to a continuing focus on pronunciation, promote fluency and effective delivery of oral texts.

 Reading, Understanding and Responding

These outcomes apply to both silent reading and reading aloud, as the Teaching Components indicate. It should be remembered that silent reading is only possible when the text is at the independent reading level of the learner or when it is at instructional level and carefully supported with a variety of guided reading scaffolds, such as an advance organiser, or a set of question prompts. At Foundation and Stage 1, the Teaching Components strongly suggest a phonemic awareness programme, so that sound letter correspondences (including clusters and blends) are firmly established for both individual letters and vowel and consonant blends.

 The Teaching Components at Stage 2 include drawing attention  to syllabification and chunking text to promote fluent reading. In addition they encourage building understanding of prefixes, suffixes and word stems to increase word knowledge. At Stage 3, the Teaching Components draw attention to knowledge needed to respond to different aspects of text, including literary devices. All texts promote a focus on word, sentence and whole text analysis.


The Foundation Stage of Writing explicitly demonstrates the fundamental skills and understandings that learners will need to have established in order to begin to manage classroom learning. The Stages 1-3 then model text structures and describe language features of typical classroom tasks. There are likely to be many learners who will enter school at Years 7-13 already competent  in these skills. Diagnostic and placement assessments will determine this. The content of texts used in Stages 1-3 as writing  models is, like that of the texts for Oral interaction  and Reading, drawn from a number of curriculum contexts.

Using the Resource - teaching and learning components

It is desirable for the ESOL teacher to familiarise the mainstream teachers with the Resource, explaining the Teaching Components, Sample Strategies, the Text Structures and the Language Features of texts applied to each outcome for each stage for three reasons. Firstly, understanding of some of the language features and text structures of texts in the curriculum areas will assist mainstream teachers to support the language acquisition of English language learners. Secondly, the sample strategies may enhance the ability  of mainstream teachers to choose a range of strategies to engage English language learners. Thirdly, mainstream teachers may be able to share in the assessment of these outcomes in mainstream classes, particularly at later stages of language development.

This sharing should be a gradual process, perhaps facilitated through a series of in-school professional development sessions. There are likely to be other language and learning intentions and outcomes which are part of the ESOL teaching and learning programme. Assessing and reporting on these additional outcomes will be integrated into these teaching and learning programmes. It should be reiterated that any of the tasks in an ESOL programme, including the models presented here should be part of a carefully planned and scaffolded teaching and learning sequence.

 It is recommended that teachers choose the Outcomes relating to the same text type in each of the domains of Oral interaction, Reading, understanding and responding, and Writing when planning a unit which integrates the three.

 Teaching and reporting on outcomes

The rate of progression of students through the different  Stages of the ELIP Resource will be determined by a number of well-recognised  factors such as level of literacy in first language, experience of continuity or interruption in prior schooling, adjustment to school, and family circumstances. The ELIP Resource is not intended to be seen as a linear programme model. Students may progress at different rates in oral and written language development and may need intensive support in one area more than another.

 Formative and cumulative assessment of student progress should occur in a wide variety of curriculum contexts as appropriate, throughout the teaching of the programme. Formal assessment should occur towards the end of each Stage. Suggested tasks for assessment can be found on the (a) pages of the ELIP Resource.

Using the Resource - presenting the examples

Using the Resource: presenting  the examples

When presenting the materials to the students, it is recommended that Example Texts either be copied onto individual sheets, laminated and kept as a class set, or be photocopied as enlarged  texts onto overhead transparencies. The text size should be no smaller than size 16 or 18 font. The language features could be copied onto a separate OHT and overlaid. It is essential to teach the Text Structure of each example, so that learners understand the stages of a typical text. Some texts have illustrations which have been designed to enhance comprehension of the written or spoken text. It is recommended that these illustrations are included in the students’ version of the text. This especially applies to sequencing a series of illustrations relating to a procedure or an information report.

 Layout of the English Language Intensive Programme Years 7-13 Resource

Teaching Components identified as key points to consider for achieving each outcome are located on the (a) pages. This is not a prescriptive list and teachers may choose to add points where applicable.

Teachers may also find it useful to use Sample Strategies, which are also located on the (a) pages, as a quick reference for finding various teaching strategies appropriate to achieving outcomes. We should reiterate that these are indeed samples and there are many other strategies that should be used as well. In addition, teachers should be considering which teaching structures (i.e. whole class, pair work, mixed/same  language groups, same/different English language proficiency groups etc) best suit the purpose of each learning task.

Suggested Themes, Topics and Experiences which provide suggestions for appropriate contexts for teaching each of the outcomes can also be found on the (a) pages, along with Assessments. These lists are not prescriptive, nor is it compulsory for all the suggestions to be used.

The Grammar Scope on the (b) pages is provided as a reference resource to support teachers in the preparation  of their teaching and learning materials. The grammar points should be linked to each text. It is important to try and explain not just the “what“ of a grammar point but also the “why”. For example, when teaching the different  forms of the present tense, e.g “I am writing”, “I write”, students should learn not only the form of the tense, but that the present tense is used to indicate that something is happening now - at the present time - or that the present tense is also used to indicate a continuous or timeless state (unchanging). e.g. Elephants are large.

Note:  The Grammar Scope is primarily for teacher reference, so that teachers can draw the attention of students to the language features typical of different texts. It is not suggested that all the grammar items be explicitly covered with the student at one time, but over a gradual period, with opportunities for repetition and practice. Teacher knowledge about language can be supplemented with information from grammar texts which promote teaching and learning grammar at whole text level, rather than isolated sentences and words which are divorced from curriculum related texts. A select list of helpful grammar texts can be found on ESOL Online.

The Example Texts provide the teacher with a guide to the level of text and a range of typical texts with which the student should be able to work. Some students may be capable of using longer, more complicated texts within  each stage, while others may need additional support or simpler texts. The range does not include all the different forms of text which the students will encounter, for example there are no advertisements. However, teachers can add these into the ESOL programme as they link to mainstream classroom texts and tasks. The Example Texts are located on the (b) pages or, if applicable, the (c) and (d) pages. These pages also provide a teacher reference to Text Structure and Language Features for a teaching and learning focus.

Published on: 17 Sep 2020