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ESOL Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.


  • An approach to factual writing: this article suggests one way of categorising types of factual writing and introduces a teaching strategy which can develop students' awareness of the structural and language features of a number of factual genres. Levels 1 to 8.
  • Combining dictogloss and cooperative learning to promote language learning (PDF)
  • Generation 1.5 students and college writing: Linda Harklau’s 2003 article discusses some of the special writing needs of generation 1.5 students (so called because they share the characteristics of both first- and second-generation immigrants).
  • Looking for quality in student writing: this article gives suggestions for analysing the good things a writer does. Learning to see the things students can do so we can teach them to do the things they can't. Levels 1 to 8.
  • An Approach to Factual Writing: Wray and Lewis on text types and writing frames, with clear explanations and exemplifications.
  • Sentence Combining: 2004 report on the role sentence combining can play in improving writing quality (The Institute of Education, University of London).
  • Knapp, P. and Watkins, M. (1994). Context–Text–Grammar: Teaching the Genres and Grammar of SchoolWriting in Infant and Primary Classrooms: This resource provides a detailed discussion of the concepts involved in learning about language, including functional grammar based on the genres of school writing.
  • Knapp, P. and Watkins, M. (2005). Genre, Text, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assessing Writing: This resource examines how the three aspects of language (genre, text and grammar) can be used as resources in teaching and assessing writing.
  • Writing Frames: Scaffolding children’s non-fiction writing in a range of genres
  • An approach to  scaffolding children's non-fiction writing: the use of writing frames (David Wray and Maureen Lewis)

Published on: 13 Sep 2010


“A word after a word after a word is power.” ~ Margaret Atwood