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ESOL Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.


  • Derewianka, B. (1998). A Grammar Companion for Primary Teachers
    This resource provides descriptions of English grammar that are easy to understand and offers useful information and suggestions for primary teachers. It provides a functional perspective on grammar, which focuses on meaning and the communicative purposes of language.
  • Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths: 1997 article by Larsen-Freeman that is still topical.
  • 2003 report by Schleppegrell that looks at text types students are expected to write and discusses how teachers can help students develop proficiency through a functional approach to grammar and explicit attention to language features.
  • Key Concepts in ELT: ' Focus on form' and 'focus on forms' Sheen highlights issues in the debate around what is the most effective form of grammar instruction in the communicative language classroom.
  • Reformulation and Reconstruction: Tasks that Promote 'Noticing' (PDF) (548 kB): Scott Thornbury describes ways he has used reformulation and reconstruction tasks in his classroom to help students notice language forms.
  • Sentence Combining: 2004 report on the role sentence combining can play in improving writing quality (The Institute of Education, University of London).
  • Syntax: 2004 report on whether grammar teaching affects writing accuracy and quality (The Institute of Education, University of London).

Published on: 22 Jul 2010